A Diagram of a kernel of wheat is depicted here. The bran layers contain B-Vitamins
and fiber and account for about 15% of the grain by weight. The germ contains Vitamin
E which is an anti-oxidant. The Endosperm is the starch and about 80% of the grain.
The wheat kernel, sometimes called the wheat berry, is the seed from which the wheat plant grows. Each tiny seed contains three distinct parts that are separated during the milling process to produce flour. The kernel of wheat is a storehouse of nutrients essential to the human diet.
..about 83 percent of the kernel weight. It is the source of white flour. The endosperm contains the greatest share of the protein in the whole kernel, carbohydrates, iron as well as many B-complex vitamins, such as riboflavin, niacin, and thiamine.
..about 14 1/2 percent of the kernel weight. Bran is included in whole wheat flour and is also available separately. Of the nutrients in whole wheat, the bran contains a small amount of protein, larger quantities of the B-complex vitamins listed above, trace minerals, and indigestible cellulose material also called dietary flour.
..about 2 1/2 percent of the kernel weight. The germ is the embryo or sprouting section of the seed, usually separated because of the fat that limits the keeping quality of flour. Of the nutrients in whole wheat, the germ contains minimal quantities of protein, but a greater share of B-complex vitamins and trace minerals. Wheat germ can be purchased separately and is included in whole wheat flour.
Refined flour looses between 48-98% of the many naturally occurring vitamins and minerals.
There are estimated to be 26 vitamins and minerals in a kernel of wheat.
Only Vitamins B-1, B-2, and B-3 and folic acid and iron are added to white flour in a synthetic
form and this is called enrichment.
This graphic depicts how we are being robbed of nutrients when we eat refined foods.